Which vitamins are soluble in water? Here, you will get deep knowledge about vitamins soluble in water. So, look ahead and enjoy the article.
Micro-nutrients (Micro means very small)
Nutrients which are required in very much smaller qualities as compared to macro-nutrients in the body of an organism.
They are essential as much as macro-nutrients, for biochemical reactions and physiological actions in the body of an organism.
Micro-nutrients help in metabolism (biochemical processes in living organism) of macro-nutrients in living organisms. So, in our daily diet both types of nutrients are important for our healthy lifestyle.
Types of micro-nutrients
- Vitamins (organic compounds): Water-soluble & Fat-soluble vitamins.
- Minerals (inorganic compounds): Macro-minerals & Trace minerals.
Vitamins are micro organic compounds, made up by plants and animals which can be broken down by heat, acid or air.
Categorized into two types:
i). Water-soluble (vitamins soluble in water) &
ii). Fat-soluble vitamins (soluble in fat).
Water-soluble vitamins (Vitamin-B group & C)
Vitamins which are dissolve in water and not easily stored in our body. They get removed out with urine when consumed in excess amount. Basically, these are vitamins soluble in water.
Salient features of water-soluble vitamins
- Most of Vitamins B act as coenzymes that help in triggering chemical reactions which are essential for energy production.
- Vitamin B1 (Thiamine):
(RDA= 1.0 to 1.7 mg/day)
- Found in unpolished and unmilled grains.
- Functions: Helps in converting nutrient into energy i.e. carbohydrate and protein metabolism, nervous system, genetic synthesis (RNA & DNA), regular growth and uterus health.
- Sources: Whole wheat, Kidney beans, Soy bean, Gram, Peanut, Sunflower seed, Sesame seed, Green pea, Cabbage, Mushroom, Egg, Orange, Watermelon, Yeast, Fish, Brown rice etc.
- Excess tea and coffee lowers thiamine absorption level.
- Baking soda in cooking hampers vitamin absorption rate.
- Deficiencies: Dry beri-beri (nervous & muscular system), Wet beri-beri (Cardiovascular & Neurological system), Infantile beri-beri (breast feed infants), Cerebral beri-beri (in alcoholics).
- Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin):
(RDA= 1.1 to 2.1 mg/day)
- Functions: Helps in energy production i.e. fat, protein & carbs metabolism, cell function, as a coenzyme, vitamin & mineral metabolism, antioxidant activities in body, RBCs synthesis & reproduction.
- Sources: Whole mild, Curd, Spinach, Mushroom, Tomato, Almond, Peanut, Gram, Whole wheat, Yeast, Mutton, Fish, Egg, Cheese etc.
- Deficiencies: Ariboflavinosis (Inflammation of tongue & mouth, lip corner cracks, eye & nervous system defects).
- Vitamin B3 (Niacin):
(RDA= 12 to 21 mg/day)
- Exist in 2 forms= Nicotinic acid & Nicotinamide.
- Niacin is a component of carbohydrate, protein and fat breakdown.
- Functions: Drives production of energy from food, essential for synthesis of fatty acids & steroids, repair DNA, mobilization of calcium, metabolism of alcohol, skin health & proper digestion.
- Helps in secretion of insulin and sexual hormones.
- Increases blood circulation and decreases cholesterol.
- Sources: Cereals, Pulses, Whole wheat, Wheat bran, Pumpkin seed, Peanut, Almond, Dates, Egg, Meat, Mushroom, Spinach, Tomato, Carrot, Potato, Bajra, Barley etc.
- Deficiencies: Pellagra (Weight loss, weakness, reduced appetite), Diarrhoea, Dementia, Dermatitis.
- Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid):
(RDA= 5 mg/day)
- Essential for fatty acid synthesis process.
- Functions: Helps in healing wounds, normal growth, metabolism, nervous system, glands functioning and prevention from free radicals means improve immunity & aging.
- Sources: Yeast, Pulses, Salmon, Geminated wheat, Mushroom, Orange etc.
- Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine):
(RDA= 2.0 to 2.5 mg/day)
- Family of 3 compounds= Pyridoxal, Pyridoxine and Pyridoxamine.
- Functions: Helps in releasing sugar from stored amount of carbohydrates for energy, creating blood cells & anti-bodies, transamination of amino acids, responsible for oxygen binding in haemoglobin, synthesis of WBCs, carbohydrate metabolism, gene expression, for interconversion from tryptophan to niacin and homocysteine to cysteine.
- It maintains ratio in between sodium and phosphorus and also regulates fluid balance in between sodium and potassium.
- Sources: Meat, Fish, Almond, Oat, Wheat bran, Potato, Watermelon, Spinach, Banana, Soy bean etc.
- Deficiencies: Inflammation of tongue, skin of scalp, hair or face, Anaemia due to pale colored RBCs, Depression, Headaches, Confusion and Convulsions.
- Vitamin B7 (Biotin):
(RDA= 30 mcg/day)
- Functions: Helps in metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and glucose, also helps in skin health and metabolism.
- Regulates nucleic acid formation i.e. RNA, DNA.
- Prohibits baldness.
- Sources: Pulses, Yeast, Germinated beans, Egg, Soybean etc.
- Vitamin B9 (Folate):
(RDA= 200 to 300 mcg/day)
- Essential for cell division.
- Functions: Helps in synthesis of genetic material, proliferation, amino acids metabolism, cell maturation, improvement of mental state, heart protective, maintain blood pressure, lowers risk of cancer.
- Sources: Spinach, Bathua, Mustard, Carrot, Broccoli, Tomato, Peas, Orange, Banana, Melon, Egg, Meat, Whole grains etc.
- Deficiencies: Anaemia, Spina bifida (bulging of spinal cord or spinal fluid), Neural tube defects in foetus.
- Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin):
(RDA= 1.0 to 1.5 mcg/day)
- Only vitamin that has cobalt mineral in its structure.
- Functions: Helps in formation of RBCs, functioning of nervous system, folic acid metabolism, coenzyme for amino acid conversion, maintain myelin sheath of nervous system, metabolism of fatty acids and improves mental concentration.
- Sources: Seafood, Meat, Chicken, Organ meat, Milk and milk products, Egg etc.
- Deficiencies: Pernicious Anaemia, Abnormal formation of blood cells, Loss of appetite, Diarrhoea, Mental retardness, Memory loss, Concentration loss.
- Vitamin-C (Ascorbic acid):
(RDA= 40 to 60 mg/day)
- Acts as antioxidant.
- Functions: Helps in building immune system, neurotransmitters and collagen, absorption of iron, transport of fatty acids, tyrosine & thyroxin, lowers cholesterol & stress, repairing and maintenance of tissues etc.
- Sources: Melon, Lemon, Orange, Kiwi, Mango, Papaya, Guava, Tomato, Green chillies, Potato, Spinach, Bathua, Amla(Indian gooseberry) etc.
- Deficiencies: Scurvy (bleeding gums, delay in wound healing), Infantile scurvy (bone pain and difficulty in movement).
- Excess: Diarrhoea, Stomach inflammation and Kidney stones.
Fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamin A, D, E, K)
Click fat soluble vitamins for detail.
Friends, even for a healthy person, it is safe to take multivitamins everyday to keep his/her sound health rather vitamins quantity must lie within RDA (Recommended dietary allowances) range.-healthjaagran
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