Tag Archives: #mineral

What Are Best and Powerful Macro Minerals and Their Functions

Do you know about macro minerals and their functions. In addition, we will share their types, sources, deficiencies and toxicity effects. Here is the detail of minerals like calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride, potassium and sulfur.

Micro-nutrients (Micro means very small)

Nutrients, which are required in very much smaller qualities as compared to macro-nutrients in the body of an organism.

Types of micro-nutrients

  1. Vitamins (organic compounds): Water-soluble & Fat-soluble vitamins.
  2. Minerals (inorganic compounds): Macro-minerals & Trace minerals.

A). VITAMINS

Vitamins are micro organic compounds. These are made up by plants and animals which can be broken down by heat, acid or air.

Categorized into two types: i). Water-soluble & ii). Fat-soluble vitamins.

i). Water-soluble vitamins (Vitamin-B group & C)

ii). Fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamin A, D, E, K)

B). MINERALS

Minerals are inorganic compounds present in soil or water and cannot be broken down.

Categorized into two types: i). Major or Macro-minerals & ii). Trace minerals.

i). Major or Macro-minerals

Minerals which are required by an organism in greater amount (in mg) than trace minerals for performing specific functions of body.

Macro minerals and their functions

Calcium
  • Calcium: (RDA = 600-800 mg/day)
    • It is present in our body in greatest amount.
    • Mostly calcium in concentrated in the bones and teeth i.e. appx. 1000-2000gm.
    • Blood calcium level must be maintained within limits (9-11 mg/dl). Above range, it leads to muscle stiffness and below range, it leads to uncontrolled muscular contraction. Low blood calcium level occurs due to deficiency of Vit-D or due to abnormal parathyroid hormones.
    • Functions:
      • Active role in various metabolic reactions e.g. muscle function (contraction & relaxation), blood vessel contraction, blood clotting, heart functioning etc.
      • Helps in bone health with proper structure/rigidity/strength and functioning of bones & teeth.
      • Helps in blood pressure regulation and protection against hypertension.
      • Calcium is required for transmission of nerve impulses.
      • Calcium is also required for cell metabolism.
    • Sources:
      • Milk & dairy products, Bajra, Wheat, Rice, Almond, Sesame seed, Coconut, Soyabean, Mustard, Spinach, Bathua etc.
    • Deficiencies:
      • Incomplete bone mineralization and brittle teeth.
      • Osteoporosis and loss of teeth in adults.
      • Low blood calcium level lead to muscular spasms (Tetany).
    • Excess:
      • Risk of kidney stone formation.
      • Acts as an inhibitor in the absorption of iron and zinc.
      • Higher risk of cardiac issues due to deposition in arteries.
Phosphorus
  • Phosphorus: (RDA = 600-800 mg/day)
    • Helps in bone health and cell membrane structure.
Magnesium
  • Magnesium: (RDA = 300-340 mg/day)
    • Helps in enzymatic reactions and blood pressure regulation.
Sodium
  • Sodium: (RDA = 1000-2100 mg/day)
    • Common salt is the major source of sodium for our body.
    • Functions:
      • Helps in fluid balance and maintenance of blood pressure.
      • Helps in retaining body water.
      • Acts as an acid-base balancer & osmotic pressure regulator.
      • Helps in absorption of various nutrients.
      • Helps in nerve impulse conduction and muscular contraction.
    • Sources:
      • Common salt/Sodium chloride, Food additives, Mustard, Bathua, Salt water fish, Packaged food, Milk, Cheese etc.
    • Deficiencies:
      • Continuous vomit and diarrhoea and excessive sweating.
      • Nausea, Muscular cramps and in case of no treatment, patient can stay in shock & coma.
      • Severe sodium loss can be fatal.
    • Excess:
      • Cardiac problems like high blood pressure.
      • Kidney stones due to excess urinary calcium output.
      • Fluid retention in the body.
Chloride
  • Chloride: (RDA = 1800-2300 mg/day)
    • Helps in fluid balance and in making digestive juices.
Potassium
  • Potassium: (RDA = 3000-3750 mg/day)
    • Maintains cellular functions inside cell, those are performed by sodium outside the cell.
    • Functions:
      • Helps in fluid balance, nerve transmission and muscle function.
      • Maintain cell integrity and constant heartbeat/ cardiac rhythm.
      • Helps in functioning of various enzymes.
      • Maintain acid-base balance and osmotic pressure in the cell.
      • Maintain blood pressure.
    • Sources:
      • Milk, Curd, Banana, Melon, Spinach, Lettuce, Bajra, Orange, Grape, Tomato, Potato, Carrot, Soybean, Almonds, Meat etc.
    • Deficiencies:
      • Diuretic medicines side-effects potassium deficiencies.
      • Potassium deficiency causes high blood pressure.
      • Diarrhoea can cause severe potassium deficiency.
      • Can cause fatal.
    • Excess:
      • Affects heart functioning and reduces heart beats and lead to heart attack.
Sulfur
  • Sulfur: (RDA (Sulfur amino acids (methionine & cysteine)) = 15-18 mg/kg body weight/day)
    • Helps in making tissues as contained in amino acids.

ii). Trace minerals

Minerals are vital as compared to Vitamins. Lack of vitamins causes diseases but lack of minerals may cause even death.

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Facts on the Importance of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

What is recommended dietary allowance

The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)are the safe intake levels of the essential nutrients. These levels are found to be adequate or sufficient to meet the nutrients requirement of nearly all healthy individuals in a specific life stage along with gender group.

( RDA INTAKE = NUTRIENTS REQUIREMENT + SAFETY MARGIN )

Every organism need a wide range of nutrients to lead a healthy and active lifestyle. The amount of each nutrient requirement for an individual depends on his/her age, body weight, physical activity, physiological states i.e. pregnancy, lactation etc. So, the requirement of all nutrients varies from individual to individual.

Nutrient requirement is the requirement of particular nutrient in the minimum amount that needs to be consumed by an organism. It is used for preventing from the symptom of deficiencies. Also, it is required to maintain adequate level of the nutrient in the body of an organism.

RDA Chart for Vitamin A, Vitamin B – group and Vitamin C ( Report by a expert group of ICMR- Indian Council Of Medical Research)
RDA Chart for Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Vitamin B7 and Vitamin B5
Displays RDA Chart for amino acids
RDA Chart for carbohydrates, protein, fats, calcium, iron, zinc and magnesium
RDA Chart for chloride, chromium, copper, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium and sodium

Importance of RDA standards

  • RDA helps in comparing RDA intakes of individuals that allows in making estimation for probable risk of deficiency among individuals.
  • It helps in upgrading the nutrient requirements in clinical management of diseases.
  • Helps public health nutritionists to compose diets for schools, hospitals, gyms, fitness classes, an individual etc.
  • It helps in designing, developing nutrition programmes and policies for health care policy makers and public health nutritionists.
  • Helps in planning and procuring food supplies for different groups of population.
  • It helps in evaluating the adequacy of food supplies in meeting national nutritional needs.
  • RDA helps in making food consumption records of individuals and populations.
  • Helps in establishing standards for the national feeding programmes, implemented by the Government for its vulnerable population.
  • Helps in providing nutritional education programmes for the groups of population.
  • It helps in searching and developing new food product ranges and dietary supplements by the industry. It is beneficial for enhancing health of an individual.
  • RDA helps in establishing guidelines for the national labeling of packaged foods. In India it is done by Food Standards Safety Authority of India (FSSAI).

We can say that the RDA is just like a minimum level of lubrication oil in our vehicle engine (Engine represents our body).

If lubrication oil level of vehicle engine is low, then engine will run for sometime but not for a long life.

In same way, if RDA is not followed by us, we will run for sometime but not for a long life.

– Health Jaagran

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