The “Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)” are the safeintake levels of the essential nutrients. These levels are found to be adequate or sufficient to meet the nutrients requirement of nearly all healthy individuals in a specific life stage along with gender group.
Every organism need a wide range of nutrients to lead a healthy and active lifestyle. The amount of each nutrient requirement for an individual depends on his/her age, body weight, physical activity, physiological states i.e. pregnancy, lactation etc. So, the requirement of all nutrients varies from individual to individual.
Nutrient requirement is the requirement of particular nutrient in the minimum amount that needs to be consumed by an organism. It is used for preventing from the symptom of deficiencies. Also, it is required to maintain adequate level of the nutrient in the body of an organism.
Importance of RDA standards
RDA helps in comparing RDA intakes of individuals that allows in making estimation for probable risk of deficiency among individuals.
It helps in upgrading the nutrient requirements in clinical management of diseases.
Helps public health nutritionists to compose diets for schools, hospitals, gyms, fitness classes, an individual etc.
It helps in designing, developing nutrition programmes and policies for health care policy makers and public health nutritionists.
Helps in planning and procuring food supplies for different groups of population.
It helps in evaluating the adequacy of food supplies in meeting national nutritional needs.
RDA helps in making food consumption records of individuals and populations.
Helps in establishing standards for the national feeding programmes, implemented by the Government for its vulnerable population.
Helps in providing nutritional education programmes for the groups of population.
It helps in searching and developing new food product ranges and dietary supplements by the industry. It is beneficial for enhancing health of an individual.
RDA helps in establishing guidelines for the national labeling of packaged foods. In India it is done by Food Standards Safety Authority of India (FSSAI).
We can say that the RDA is just like a minimum level of lubrication oil in our vehicle engine (Engine represents our body).
If lubrication oil level of vehicle engine is low, then engine will run for sometime but not for a long life.
In same way, if RDA is not followed by us, we will run for sometime but not for a long life.
Vitamins which doesn’t dissolve in water and best dissolve in fat or a source of fat. After complete absorption and consumption of these vitamins, they stored in liver and fatty/muscle tissues for a future purpose of body requirement.
Deficiencies: Night blindness, Conjunctival Xerosis (Dryness of front thin membrane layer of eye), Bitot’s spot (Dark grey or black spots in cornea of eye), Corneal Xerosis, Follicular Hyperkeratosis (plugging of hair follicles) etc.
Functions: Helps in building bone health by assisting in calcium absorption, to regulate blood calcium, cell division, reduce risk of some cancers, insulin secretion, functioning of parathyroid gland and also helps in building immunity.
Helps in working of vitamin A, calcium and phosphorus in the body.
Sources:Exposure to sun light, Fish liver oil, Egg yolk, Milk & milk products etc.
Excess: Constipation, Weight loss, Vomiting, Nausea, Excess thirst etc.
Vitamin E (α-tocopherol):(RDA= 7.5 to 10 mg/day)
Essential for reproductive health i.e. tocopherol.
Functions: Promotes immune system, protects vit A & vit C from oxidation, helps in anti-aging, cancer protection, prevention from cardiac issues, iron metabolism, nervous tissues health, reproduction, foetus health and reduces cholesterol level.
Deficiencies:RBC’s breakdown, Muscular dystrophy, Impairment of neuromuscular function.
Vitamin K (Menadione):(RDA= 55 µg/day)
Known as coagulation vitamin (coagulation of blood in case of injury).
Functions: Helps in blood clotting (formation of blood clotting protein), proper bone development, blood circulation and liver functioning.
Sources: Tomatoes, Green pea, Cauliflower, French beans, Spinach, Broccoli, Cabbage, Mustard, Liver oil, Soybeans etc.
Deficiencies: Increase in blood clotting time, Increased the chances of haemorrhage.
Fat-soluble vitamins are abundantly available with high-fat foods as they are soluble in fat or lipid and also they are much better absorbed into our bloodstream when we eat these vitamins with fatty food.
Which vitamins are soluble in water? Here, you will get deep knowledge about vitamins soluble in water. So, look ahead and enjoy the article.
Micro-nutrients(Micro means very small)
Nutrients which are required in very much smaller qualities as compared to macro-nutrients in the body of an organism.
They are essential as much as macro-nutrients, for biochemical reactions and physiological actions in the body of an organism.
Micro-nutrients help in metabolism (biochemical processes in living organism) of macro-nutrients in living organisms. So, in our daily diet both types of nutrients are important for our healthy lifestyle.
Functions: Helps in healing wounds, normal growth, metabolism, nervous system, glands functioning and prevention from free radicals means improve immunity & aging.
Sources: Yeast, Pulses, Salmon, Geminated wheat, Mushroom, Orange etc.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine):(RDA= 2.0 to 2.5 mg/day)
Family of 3 compounds= Pyridoxal, Pyridoxine and Pyridoxamine.
Functions: Helps in releasing sugar from stored amount of carbohydrates for energy, creating blood cells & anti-bodies, transamination of amino acids, responsible for oxygen binding in haemoglobin, synthesis of WBCs, carbohydrate metabolism, gene expression, for interconversion from tryptophan to niacin and homocysteine to cysteine.
It maintains ratio in between sodium and phosphorus and also regulates fluid balance in between sodium and potassium.
Deficiencies: Anaemia, Spina bifida (bulging of spinal cord or spinal fluid), Neural tube defects in foetus.
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin):(RDA= 1.0 to 1.5 mcg/day)
Only vitamin that has cobalt mineral in its structure.
Functions: Helps in formation of RBCs, functioning of nervous system, folic acid metabolism, coenzyme for amino acid conversion, maintain myelin sheath of nervous system, metabolism of fatty acids and improves mental concentration.
Sources: Seafood, Meat, Chicken, Organ meat, Milk and milk products, Egg etc.
Deficiencies: Pernicious Anaemia, Abnormal formation of blood cells, Loss of appetite, Diarrhoea, Mental retardness, Memory loss, Concentration loss.
Vitamin-C (Ascorbic acid):(RDA= 40 to 60 mg/day)
Acts as antioxidant.
Functions: Helps in building immune system, neurotransmitters and collagen, absorption of iron, transport of fatty acids, tyrosine & thyroxin, lowers cholesterol & stress, repairing and maintenance of tissues etc.
Sources: Melon, Lemon, Orange, Kiwi, Mango, Papaya, Guava, Tomato, Green chillies, Potato, Spinach, Bathua, Amla(Indian gooseberry) etc.
Deficiencies: Scurvy (bleeding gums, delay in wound healing), Infantile scurvy (bone pain and difficulty in movement).
Excess: Diarrhoea, Stomach inflammation and Kidney stones.