Category Archives: Macro-minerals

What Are Best and Powerful Macro Minerals and Their Functions

Do you know about macro minerals and their functions. In addition, we will share their types, sources, deficiencies and toxicity effects. Here is the detail of minerals like calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride, potassium and sulfur.

Micro-nutrients (Micro means very small)

Nutrients, which are required in very much smaller qualities as compared to macro-nutrients in the body of an organism.

Types of micro-nutrients

  1. Vitamins (organic compounds): Water-soluble & Fat-soluble vitamins.
  2. Minerals (inorganic compounds): Macro-minerals & Trace minerals.


Vitamins are micro organic compounds. These are made up by plants and animals which can be broken down by heat, acid or air.

Categorized into two types: i). Water-soluble & ii). Fat-soluble vitamins.

i). Water-soluble vitamins (Vitamin-B group & C)

ii). Fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamin A, D, E, K)


Minerals are inorganic compounds present in soil or water and cannot be broken down.

Categorized into two types: i). Major or Macro-minerals & ii). Trace minerals.

i). Major or Macro-minerals

Minerals which are required by an organism in greater amount (in mg) than trace minerals for performing specific functions of body.

Macro minerals and their functions

  • Calcium: (RDA = 600-800 mg/day)
    • It is present in our body in greatest amount.
    • Mostly calcium in concentrated in the bones and teeth i.e. appx. 1000-2000gm.
    • Blood calcium level must be maintained within limits (9-11 mg/dl). Above range, it leads to muscle stiffness and below range, it leads to uncontrolled muscular contraction. Low blood calcium level occurs due to deficiency of Vit-D or due to abnormal parathyroid hormones.
    • Functions:
      • Active role in various metabolic reactions e.g. muscle function (contraction & relaxation), blood vessel contraction, blood clotting, heart functioning etc.
      • Helps in bone health with proper structure/rigidity/strength and functioning of bones & teeth.
      • Helps in blood pressure regulation and protection against hypertension.
      • Calcium is required for transmission of nerve impulses.
      • Calcium is also required for cell metabolism.
    • Sources:
      • Milk & dairy products, Bajra, Wheat, Rice, Almond, Sesame seed, Coconut, Soyabean, Mustard, Spinach, Bathua etc.
    • Deficiencies:
      • Incomplete bone mineralization and brittle teeth.
      • Osteoporosis and loss of teeth in adults.
      • Low blood calcium level lead to muscular spasms (Tetany).
    • Excess:
      • Risk of kidney stone formation.
      • Acts as an inhibitor in the absorption of iron and zinc.
      • Higher risk of cardiac issues due to deposition in arteries.
  • Phosphorus: (RDA = 600-800 mg/day)
    • Helps in bone health and cell membrane structure.
  • Magnesium: (RDA = 300-340 mg/day)
    • Helps in enzymatic reactions and blood pressure regulation.
  • Sodium: (RDA = 1000-2100 mg/day)
    • Common salt is the major source of sodium for our body.
    • Functions:
      • Helps in fluid balance and maintenance of blood pressure.
      • Helps in retaining body water.
      • Acts as an acid-base balancer & osmotic pressure regulator.
      • Helps in absorption of various nutrients.
      • Helps in nerve impulse conduction and muscular contraction.
    • Sources:
      • Common salt/Sodium chloride, Food additives, Mustard, Bathua, Salt water fish, Packaged food, Milk, Cheese etc.
    • Deficiencies:
      • Continuous vomit and diarrhoea and excessive sweating.
      • Nausea, Muscular cramps and in case of no treatment, patient can stay in shock & coma.
      • Severe sodium loss can be fatal.
    • Excess:
      • Cardiac problems like high blood pressure.
      • Kidney stones due to excess urinary calcium output.
      • Fluid retention in the body.
  • Chloride: (RDA = 1800-2300 mg/day)
    • Helps in fluid balance and in making digestive juices.
  • Potassium: (RDA = 3000-3750 mg/day)
    • Maintains cellular functions inside cell, those are performed by sodium outside the cell.
    • Functions:
      • Helps in fluid balance, nerve transmission and muscle function.
      • Maintain cell integrity and constant heartbeat/ cardiac rhythm.
      • Helps in functioning of various enzymes.
      • Maintain acid-base balance and osmotic pressure in the cell.
      • Maintain blood pressure.
    • Sources:
      • Milk, Curd, Banana, Melon, Spinach, Lettuce, Bajra, Orange, Grape, Tomato, Potato, Carrot, Soybean, Almonds, Meat etc.
    • Deficiencies:
      • Diuretic medicines side-effects potassium deficiencies.
      • Potassium deficiency causes high blood pressure.
      • Diarrhoea can cause severe potassium deficiency.
      • Can cause fatal.
    • Excess:
      • Affects heart functioning and reduces heart beats and lead to heart attack.
  • Sulfur: (RDA (Sulfur amino acids (methionine & cysteine)) = 15-18 mg/kg body weight/day)
    • Helps in making tissues as contained in amino acids.

ii). Trace minerals

Minerals are vital as compared to Vitamins. Lack of vitamins causes diseases but lack of minerals may cause even death.


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